Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, U.K.
To establish the thermal and performance effects of wearing a lower-body graduated compression garment (GCG; COMPRESSION) in a hot environment (35.2 (0.1)°C) with a representative radiant heat load (~800 W.m2) in contrast to a CONTROL (running shorts) and SHAM condition (a compression garment 1-size larger than that recommended by the manufacturer) with the latter included to establish any placebo effect.
Eight participants (mean [SD]); age 21 years; height 1.77 [0.06]m; mass 72.8 [7.1]kg; surface area, 1.89 [0.10]m2) completed three treadmill tests at a fixed speed for 15-minutes followed by a self-paced 5 kilometre time trial (TT). Performance (completion time) and pacing (split time), thermal responses (aural [Tau], skin [Tskin], mean body temperature [Tb], cardiac frequency [fc]) and perceptual responses (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], thermal sensation [TS], thermal comfort [TC]) were measured.
Performance in COMPRESSION was not different to either SHAM or CONTROL at any stage (p>0.05); completion time 26.08 (4.08), 26.05 (3.27), 25.18 (3.15) minutes, respectively. At the end of the 5 km TT, RPE was not different; 19 (1) across conditions. In general, thermal and perceptual responses were not different although the radiant heat load increased site-specific skin temperature (quadricep) in the garment conditions.
GCG did not enhance performance in a hot environment with a representative radiant heat load. The SHAM treatment did not benefit perception. GCG provided no evidence of performance enhancement.
**Note:Those of us with lymphedema however, MUST, wear our compression garments and/or wraps.**
Department of Kinesiology, University of the Fraser Valley, 33844 King Road, Abbotsford, BC, V2S-7M8, Canada, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and a distressing, irresistible urge to move them. RLS severity and burden vary widely, and the condition may require long-term treatment.
To review the comparative effectiveness, efficacy, and safety of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatments for RLS.
We searched bibliographic databases MEDLINE (via OVID), Embase, and Natural Standards through June 2012.
Eligible efficacy studies included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of individuals with RLS published in English that lasted at least 4 weeks and compared pharmacologic and/or nonpharmacologic treatments with placebo or active treatment. We assessed RLS symptom impact, sleep scale scores, disease-specific quality of life, withdrawals, and adverse effects. We included observational studies that assessed long-term (>6 months) treatment adverse effects and withdrawals.
Of the 53 studies included, one active comparator and 33 placebo-controlled RCTs provided efficacy and harms data, and 18 observational studies assessed long-term harms and adherence. RCTs were typically small and of short duration, and enrolled adult subjects with severe primary RLS of long duration. Placebo-controlled RCTs (18 trials) demonstrated that dopamine agonists (pramipexole, rotigotine, ropinirole, and cabergoline) increased the percentage of subjects who had a clinically important response defined as ≥50 percent reduction from baseline in mean International RLS symptom scale scores (IRLS responders) (risk ratio [RR]=1.60; [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38 to 1.86], k=7), improved RLS symptom scores, patient-reported sleep scale scores (effect size=0.38; [95% CI: 0.29 to 0.46], k=8), and disease-specific quality of life (effect size=−0.37; [95% CI: −0.48 to −0.27], k=9). Dopamine agonists resulted in more patients who experienced at least one adverse event (high-strength evidence for all outcomes). Long-term augmentation (drug-induced worsening of symptoms) and treatment withdrawal were common. Alpha-2-delta ligands (gabapentin enacarbil, gabapentin, and pregabalin) increased the number of IRLS responders (RR=1.66; [95% CI: 1.33 to 2.09], k=3, high strength of evidence) and mean change in IRLS symptom scores (k=3, high strength of evidence). Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose reduced IRLS symptom scale scores versus placebo (k=1, moderate strength of evidence). Four studies assessed nonpharmacologic interventions. Compression stockings but not the botanical extract valerian improved IRLS symptom scale scores more than sham or placebo treatments. Strength of evidence was moderate for compression stockings and low for valerian. Exercise improved symptoms more than control (low-strength evidence). Near-infrared light treatment improved IRLS symptom scores more than sham (low-strength evidence). Two trials compared active treatments. In one small crossover trial, pramipexole and levodopa/benserazide resulted in similar improvements in IRLS scores (low-strength evidence). Cabergoline improved IRLS scores and resulted in less augmentation than levodopa (moderate-strength evidence). Iron improved symptoms in adults with iron deficiency (k=2) (low-strength evidence). No studies enrolled pregnant women, children, or those with end-stage renal disease. Withdrawal from mostly dopamine agonist and levodopa treatment at 1 year or more ranged from 13 to 57 percent. Treatment withdrawals were due to lack of efficacy (6% to 37%) as well as augmentation and other adverse events.
Compared to placebo, dopamine agonists and alpha-2-delta ligands reduce RLS symptoms and improve patient-reported sleep outcomes and disease-specific quality of life. Adverse effects of pharmacologic therapies and long-term treatment withdrawals due to adverse effects or lack of efficacy are common. Long-term effectiveness as well as applicability for adults with milder or less frequent RLS symptoms, individuals with secondary RLS, and children is unknown.
Lymphoedema Clinic, Guy's Hospital, Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, 3rd floor Tower Wing, Great Maze Pond, London, SE1 9RT, UK, email@example.com.
Exercise is considered to be a key aspect of lymphoedema treatment, although there is little evidence for the therapeutic effect of exercise in managing breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL). This small randomised controlled trial (RCT) was designed to determine the feasibility, prior to undertaking a larger RCT, of researching a daily home-based exerciseprogramme to treat stable BCRL. An experimental design compared the exercise intervention combined with standard lymphoedema self-care to self-care alone over a 6-month period. Twenty-three women with stable unilateral BCRL of ≥10 % excess limb volume (ELV) were randomly allocated to a daily home-based exercise programme and self-care (n = 11) or self-care measures alone (n = 12). The primary objective was to determine difference in limb volume reduction for the two groups. Secondary objectives were to monitor change in other areas that impact BCRL: quality of life, arm function and range of shoulder movement. All 23 women completed the trial, providing full data for each time point. The intervention group showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement in relative ELV at week 26 (95 % confidence interval (CI) -26.57 to -5.12), whereas the control group improvement crossed the line of no effect (95 %CI -17.71 to 1.1). This study demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a RCT of exercise as a therapeutic intervention in the management of BCRL. Although the sample was small, the results support the findings of other exercise studies which have shown trends towards improvement.